Model of the divergent consequences of HMGA1 deficiency. All actions that lower blood glucose are in green and influences that raise blood glucose are in red. Ins, insulin; GNG, gluconeogenesis. (a) In the normal physiological state, insulin action dominates, with RBP opposing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. (b) In states of Hmga1 deficiency, both downregulation of insulin receptor expression, promoting insulin resistance, and RBP, promoting insulin sensitivity, are seen.