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Table 1 Insulin resistance 'subphenotypes' seen in humans and mice with deficiency or mutations of HMGA1 or INSR*

From: From bending DNA to diabetes: the curious case of HMGA1

   Human Mouse
Tissue Characteristic INSR mutation HMGA1 mutation Common IR/T2DM Hmga1 -/- Insrloss of function
Whole body Fasting glucose ↓ to → to ↑ ↓ to → to ↑ → to ↑ ↓ to → to ↑
  Fasting insulin ↑↑↑ ↑↑↑ ↑ to ↑↑ ↑↑
  Insulin sensitivity ↓↓↓ ↓↓↓ ↓ to ↓↓ ↓↓↓
  Glucose tolerance → to ↓ → to ↓ → to ↓
Liver Lipid profile Normal Tg and HDL ? High Tg, low HDL ? ?
  IGFBP1 ↑↑
  SHBG ? ? ?
  Liver fat Normal ? ? ?
Adipose tissue Adiponectin ↑↑ ? ?
  Leptin ? → to ↑↑ ?
  RBP ? ↓↓ ?
  1. *Tg, triglyceride; HDL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; IGFBP1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin; RBP, retinol binding protein. Representative of patients with Rabson Mendenhall syndrome, in which there is approximately 90% loss of INSR function. No strictly Insr hypomorphic mice with 10% residual receptor function have been reported, so results are inferred from related models, such as a conditional peripheral Insr knockout and an Insr mosaic knockout.