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Table 1 Angiogenesis factors

From: Targeting TNF-α for cancer therapy

Factors affecting endothelial proliferation and migration
VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factors) Mediate vascular permeability, endothelial proliferation, migration, and survival
FGF family (fibroblast growth factors) Have roles in neuronal signaling, inflammatory processes, hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and invasion
PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) Induces angiogenesis, cellular proliferation and migration in synergy with transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) and EGF
EGF (epidermal growth factor) Involved in tumor proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and wound healing
Angiopoietins (Ang1, Ang2) Endothelial cell adhesion, spreading, focal contact formation, and migration
Angiopoietin-related growth factors For example, ANGPTL3, FARP, PGAR
TIE receptors (TIE1, TIE2) Essential in embryonic angiogenesis; endothelial motility
Eph receptors and Ephrins Promote migration, repulsion, adhesion and attachment to the extracellular matrix via integrins
HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) Neuronal survival factor; proliferation, migration and differentiation of various cell types
TP (thymidine phosphorylase) Induces endothelial chemotaxis
NPY (neuropeptide Y) Endothelial cell adhesion, migration and differentiation into capillaries
Factors affecting the basement membrane and extracellular matrix
TF (tissue factor) Upregulates VEGF on endothelial cells; starts coagulation process, leading to creation of two pro-thrombin fragments
Thrombin Endothelial and tumor cell mitogen, increases metastasis in vivo
uPA (plasminogen activator, urokinase) Only expressed in angiogenic endothelium; has a role in preventing excessive extracellular membrane proteolysis
tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Role in angiogenesis, as it is inhibited by angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin
Plasmin Scavenges α2-antiplasmin and α2-macroglobulin
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) Release extracellular membrane-bound growth factors
Chymases Role in proteolysis
Heparanases Role in proteolysis
Integrins Role in attachment of endothelial cells to basement membrane, extracellular membrane, and other endothelial cells
  1. Multiple different and redundant factors are involved in the complex process of angiogenesis. This table represents a sample of those factors with roles in endothelial proliferation and migration, and in the degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. Adapted from [4].