Increased X-chromosome expression in the X;AA soma and germline. (a) Experimental design. The mRNA samples from XX;AA or X;AA somatic or germline tissues were labeled with either Cy3 or Cy5 and hybridized to FlyGEM arrays. Hybridization intensities corresponding to X chromosomes (red) and autosomal genes (black) were analyzed within each X:AA or XX:AA sample. (b-f) Histograms of hybridization intensities. (b) Autosomal hybridization intensities from single-copy (orange) and two-copy (black) regions of Df/+ samples in whole adult males, whole adult females and ovaries. Bars represent autosomal arms, in the order shown across the top. (c-f) Average hybridization intensities from the single X chromosome (red) compared to two copies of each autosomal arms. (c) Germlineless X;AA male progeny of homozygous tud1mothers and carcasses from X;AA males transformed into somatic females with hs-tra. (d) X;AA gonads from wildtype males and X;AA hs-tra sex transformed flies. (e) Germlineless XX;AA female progeny of homozygous tud1mothers and XX;AA females transformed into males by dsxswe/Df(3R)dsxM+15and tra2B/Df(2R)trix. (f) XX;AA gonads from wild-type and otu17/otu1and Sxl7BO/Sxlfs3transformed ovaries. Error bars show standard deviation of the mean hybridization intensity from all replicates of each sample. Numbers of hybridization replicates are indicated in parentheses above each histogram panel.