Systemic chemotherapy with cytarabine leads to increased and prolonged cell death, and decreased BrdU incorporation, in the adult mouse CNS. Cell death and BrdU incorporation were examined as in Figures 5 and 8. (a) The number of TUNEL+ cells was analyzed in control animals and is presented as percent normalized values of controls. Each treatment group consisted of n = 5 animals, including control groups at each time point. Animals that received three cytarabine injections (250 mg/kg on days 1, 3, and 5 leading up to the analysis, where day 1 of analysis equals one day after the last treatment with cytarabine) show marked increases in cell death in the SVZ, CC and DG at various time points after treatment (n = 5 animals per group). (b) BrdU analysis. Animals were treated as for (a). As in Figure 8, the graphs show the percent BrdU+ cells per brain area normalized to the number of BrdU+ cells in sham-treated animals at various time points after systemic treatment with cytarabine. Data are means ± SEM; *P < 0.01 in comparisons with control animals.