Cell-growth regulation of gene expression at the translational level. Translational control. (a) Patterns of relative changes in translational control efficiencies from growth rate (μ) 0.1 to 0.2/h, under conditions of carbon-limitation. ORFs sorted by biological process . i, Methionine biosynthesis; ii, protein biosynthesis; iii, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism. Selected groups of transcripts whose translational control efficiency is consistently up- or downregulated with growth independently of culture condition are marked in bold. Red, upregulation; green, downregulation. (b) Box-plot of relative changes in translational control efficiencies from growth rate (μ) 0.1 to 0.2/h of transcripts in representative biological processes (>10 proteins identified per process). 1, Cell wall organization and biogenesis; 2, ER to Golgi transport; 3, ergosterol biosynthesis; 4, glycolysis; 5, methionine biosynthesis and methionine metabolism; 6, protein biosynthesis; 7, protein folding; 8, purine nucleotide, purine base and pyrimidine base biosynthesis; 9, regulation of transcription; 10, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism. Open and solid dots indicate presence of outliers that lie more than 3 or 1.5 times the interquartile (IQR) range, respectively.