Reduced TPI activity protects against diamide by increasing the metabolic flux through the PPP. (a) Schematic illustration of a subset of biochemical reactions of the glycolytic pathway (left) and the associated pentose phosphate pathway (right). Solid lines represent direct, one-step biochemical reactions, and indirect, multi-step reactions are represented as dotted lines. GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (b) Yeast deletion strains Δtpi1Δzwf1, Δtpi1Δsol3, and Δtpi1Δsol4 expressing wild-type human TPI or TPIIle170Val were spotted as fivefold serial dilutions on synthetic media supplemented with different concentrations of diamide, and plates were incubated at 30°C.