- Research article
- Open Access
Compound developmental eye disorders following inactivation of TGFβ signaling in neural-crest stem cells
- Lars M Ittner†1, 6,
- Heiko Wurdak†2,
- Kerstin Schwerdtfeger†1,
- Thomas Kunz1,
- Fabian Ille2,
- Per Leveen3,
- Tord A Hjalt4,
- Ueli Suter2,
- Stefan Karlsson3,
- Farhad Hafezi5,
- Walter Born1 and
- Lukas Sommer2Email author
© Ittner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2005
- Received: 23 May 2005
- Accepted: 7 November 2005
- Published: 14 December 2005
Development of the eye depends partly on the periocular mesenchyme derived from the neural crest (NC), but the fate of NC cells in mammalian eye development and the signals coordinating the formation of ocular structures are poorly understood.
Here we reveal distinct NC contributions to both anterior and posterior mesenchymal eye structures and show that TGFβ signaling in these cells is crucial for normal eye development. In the anterior eye, TGFβ2 released from the lens is required for the expression of transcription factors Pitx2 and Foxc1 in the NC-derived cornea and in the chamber-angle structures of the eye that control intraocular pressure. TGFβ enhances Foxc1 and induces Pitx2 expression in cell cultures. As in patients carrying mutations in PITX2 and FOXC1, TGFβ signal inactivation in NC cells leads to ocular defects characteristic of the human disorder Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly. In the posterior eye, NC cell-specific inactivation of TGFβ signaling results in a condition reminiscent of the human disorder persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. As a secondary effect, retinal patterning is also disturbed in mutant mice.
In the developing eye the lens acts as a TGFβ signaling center that controls the development of eye structures derived from the NC. Defective TGFβ signal transduction interferes with NC-cell differentiation and survival anterior to the lens and with normal tissue morphogenesis and patterning posterior to the lens. The similarity to developmental eye disorders in humans suggests that defective TGFβ signal modulation in ocular NC derivatives contributes to the pathophysiology of these diseases.
- Neural Crest
- Additional Data File
- Neural Crest Cell
- Trabecular Meshwork
- Corneal Stroma
Development of the anterior eye segment depends on the proper function of two transcription factors in the periocular mesenchyme, the forkhead/winged-helix factor FOXC1 and the paired-like homeodomain factor PITX2. In humans, hypomorphic and overactivating mutations in either gene leads to Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly , and mutation of either Foxc1 or Pitx2 in mice results in defective anterior eye-segment formation, similar to that seen in human Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly [2–4]. Whereas downstream targets of FOXC1 expressed in the eye are supposedly involved in modulating intraocular eye pressure and ocular development , PITX2 target genes have been associated with extracellular matrix synthesis and stability . In contrast, the upstream regulators of both FOXC1 and PITX2 remain to be determined. Moreover, the identity of cells expressing FOXC1 and PITX2 during anterior eye patterning is unclear.
It is conceivable that aberrant development of mesenchymal NC cells contributes to the malformations observed in Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly. Indeed, portions of the anterior eye segment, including corneal endothelial cells, collagen-synthesizing keratocytes, and iris melanocytes, were proposed to originate from the NC [7–9]. The definite contribution of NC, however, has been debated, as most of the data comes from avian models in which ocular development appears to be slightly different from that in mammals . Moreover, mechanisms controlling ocular NC migration and differentiation remain to be elucidated.
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a candidate factor for the control of ocular NC-cell development. TGFβ signaling is required for the generation of many different non-neural derivatives of the NC . Interestingly, TGFβ signaling during eye development is critical, as ligand inactivation and overexpression lead to defective ocular development in mice [12, 13]. In both cases normal development of the anterior eye segment is affected, possibly as a result of impaired NC migration and/or differentiation. In particular, the phenotype upon disruption of the Tgfb2 gene recapitulates certain features observed in Foxc1 and Pitx2 mutant mice. The cellular role of TGFβ signaling in ocular NC development is unknown, however, and a link between TGFβ signaling and activation of the transcription factors FoxC1 and Pitx2 in ocular development has not yet been established .
We report here the results of in vivo cell-fate mapping to define in detail the contribution of the NC to the forming eye in mice. In addition, we used conditional gene targeting to inactivate TGFβ signaling in NC stem cells and, as a result, in ocular NC derivatives in order to assess the actions of TGFβ on these cells during eye development.
Neural-crest cells contribute to multiple structures derived from the eye mesenchyme
NC-cell-specific constitutive expression of β-galactosidase in transgenic mice allows monitoring of NC-cell migration and fate during development in vivo [9, 14]. This approach was used in the present study to define the ocular structures originating from the NC. Rosa26 Cre reporter (Rosa26R) mice, which express β-galactosidase following Cre-mediated recombination, were mated with transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Wnt1 promoter. Although Wnt1 is not expressed in any structure of the developing eye (see Additional data file 1), it is expressed in the dorsal neural tube, allowing Wnt1-Cre-mediated recombination in virtually all NC stem cells [11, 15]. In Wnt1-Cre/Rosa26R double transgenic mice, β-galactosidase-expressing NC-derived cells can be visualized by X-gal staining.
NC-derived cells have previously been proposed to contribute to ocular development in mice after embryonic day (E)12 . Interestingly, we found that NC-derived cells were already detectable at E10 surrounding the optic cup and the lens vesicle (Figure 1f). Until E13.5 (Figure 1f–j), the NC-derived cells were found predominantly in the periocular mesenchyme, whereas the overlying epithelium, the lens, and the retina were consistently X-gal-negative. In addition, we observed that structures of the primary vitreous, located between the lens and the retina, are NC-derived (Figure 1f–j). At later stages (Figure 1d,e), X-gal-positive cells contributed to corneal stroma and endothelium and to structures of the chamber angle at the junction between the cornea and the iris. In mature eyes, the stroma of the iris, the ciliary body, and the trabecular meshwork, as well as cells of the choroid and primary vitreous, are all of NC origin (data not shown). Taken together, these results show that NC-derived cells contribute to eye development as soon as the eye vesicle is formed and, subsequently, to various structures of the maturing eye.
Multiple ocular anomalies arise from inactivation of TGFβ signaling in NC-derived periocular mesenchyme
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in Tgfbr2-mutant mice
Effects on the retina have been reported in patients with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous . Moreover, as instructive signals from the lens promote normal patterning of the retina , the irregular retrolental structures in Tgfbr2-mutant mice might alter normal interaction between the lens and the retina. To test whether retinal development in Tgfbr2-mutant mice was affected, retinas from embryos of different ages were immunohistochemically stained for factors known to be expressed at distinct stages of development . At E15, the inner parts of the retina from control mice strongly expressed the transcription factors Brn3A in retinal ganglion cells and Pax6 in amacrine cells of the ganglion cell layers; in contrast, Tgfbr2-mutant embryos had lower numbers of both Brn3A- and Pax6-positive retinal cells (Figure 5f,g). Moreover, at E15 the number of cells positive in the TUNEL-staining procedure, which detects apop-totic cells, was higher in the retinas of Tgfbr2-mutant embryos than in those of control embryos (13.3 ± 2.5/5 μm section (mutant) versus 5.6 ± 0.5 (control); p < 0.01; not shown). At E18, expression of Brn3A, Pax6 and neurofilaments defines distinct layers of the developing retina in control eyes (Figure 5h). In Tgfbr2-mutant mice, however, patterning into cell layers was disturbed, and the thickness of the retina was increased in the mutants (Figures 4, 5h). Eyes of Tgfbr2-mutant mice are therefore affected by anomalies similar to persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and by disturbed retinal patterning.
Expression of Foxc1 and Pitx2, which are both implicated in Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly, is dependent on TGFβ in NC-derived ocular cells
Pitx2 was strongly expressed in the corneal stroma at E15 in control eyes, but was undetectable in the eyes of Tgfbr2-mutant embryos (Figure 7a). Interestingly, some Tgfbr2-mutant cells of the corneal stroma expressed Dct rather than Pitx2, pointing to incorrect fate acquisition towards melanocytes or misguidance during migration (Figure 7b). At E18, the corneal stroma of control embryos consisted of thin keratocytes organized in a lamellar structure and embedded in extracellular matrix, which provides corneal stability and transparency (Figure 7c). High levels of collagen were detectable in the corneal stroma of control mice, whereas collagen staining was negative in the malformed cornea of E18 Tgfbr2-mutant mice, and stromal cells had an abnormal polygonal shape (Figure 7c,d). In summary, NC-derived ocular cells that lack responsiveness to TGFβ fail to express Foxc1 and Pitx2 and fail to undergo correct differentiation into corneal endothelial cells and collagen-synthesizing keratocytes of the corneal stroma.
TGFβ induces Foxc1 and Pitx2 expression in fibroblasts and in ex vivoeye cultures
NC-cell-specific TGFβ signal inactivation leads to defects of the posterior eye segment
The primary vitreous is situated directly behind the lens and contains the hyaloid vascular system beneath NC-derived cells. Normally, the primary vitreous regresses during postnatal eye maturation through tissue remodeling by apoptosis and phagocytosis, thereby generating the avascular, transparent secondary vitreous . In patients suffering from persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, a dense cell membrane persists between the lens and the retina. This congenital disorder is often accompanied by cataracts, secondary glaucoma, and a variable degree of microphthalmia [18, 28]. Similarly, the primary vitreous in the eyes of Tgfbr2-mutant mice appears as a dense cellular membrane, and mutant eyes are smaller than those in control mice. Much as in human persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous , the persistent retrolental cell mass in Tgfbr2-mutant mice contains fibroblast-like cells, pigmented cells, and vessels of the hyaloid vascular system, and proliferating cells are also seen.
Other mouse mutants have been reported to have a phenotype similar to persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, including those mutant for the Arf1, Bmp4, or p53 genes [29–31]. In these models, normal postnatal regression of the primary vitreous fails, resulting in a variable degree of anomalies reminiscent of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Similarly, a dense cell mass in the posterior eye has also been observed previously in Tgfb2 null mice, but this was not analyzed further . Treatment of pregnant mice with retinoic acid, which is known to interfere with TGFβ signaling , induces anomalies similar to persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in the offspring . Thus, we conclude that TGFβ signaling in NC-derived cells constituting the primary vitreous is important for tissue morphogenesis.
In the posterior eye segment, retinal development is also disturbed upon ablation of Tgfbr2 in NC cells, separately from the generation of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. In particular, we observed increased retinal apoptosis at E15 and abrogated retinal patterning, as shown by histology and layer-specific tissue marker expression (Figure 5f–h). Because there is no NC contribution to the retina, this phenotype is probably due to a secondary, non-cell-autonomous effect. The dense persistent primary vitreous in Tgfbr2-mutant mice might conceivably constrain instructive signals from the lens to the retina, but such putative signals remain to be identified.
TGFβ signal-dependent transcription factors and the generation of Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly
In addition to the defects reminiscent of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, all Tgfbr2-mutant mice have several developmental defects in the anterior eye. The anterior chamber of the eye is absent in the mutant because the cornea and the lens fail to separate. Furthermore, normal formation of the ciliary body and of the chamber angle with the trabecular meshwork requires TGFβ signaling, as these structures are defective in the mutant mice. The abnormalities presented by Tgfbr2-mutant mice are characteristic of the disorders found in patients with Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly . In this disorder, anterior segment dysgenesis impairs the regulation of the intraocular pressure, which frequently leads to developmental glaucoma.
Other mouse mutants have also been implicated as models for developmental anterior eye disorders. Mice homozygous for an inactivating mutation of Pax6, a candidate for human Peter's anomaly, lack eyes . Heterozygous Pax6+/- mice have defects in the anterior eye segment, although less severe than those found in Tgfbr2-mutant mice [34, 35]. The expression of Pax6 in eyes of Tgfbr2-mutant mice is not affected, however (data not shown), suggesting that their defects do not depend on Pax6 modulation. In human Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly, mutations have been found in the genes encoding the transcription factors FOXC1 and PITX2 . Deletion of either Foxc1 or Pitx2 in mice [2, 3] leads to defects in the anterior eye segment, very similar to those in Tgfbr2-mutant mice described in this study. In the eye, Foxc1 is expressed in the forming corneal stroma and endothelium and, at later stages, in the structures of the prospective trabecular meshwork . Intriguingly, these structures express Foxc1 in a TGFβ signal-dependent manner, and Tgfbr2-mutant prospective corneal endothelial and trabecular meshwork cells undergo apoptosis that is not observed in control eyes. Furthermore, TGFβ upregulates Foxc1 expression in fibroblasts and cultured eye tissue, in agreement with a previous report that described Foxc1 as a target gene of TGFβ in human cancer-cell lines . Thus, the data suggest that lens-derived TGFβ signaling controls the survival and development of the NC-derived periocular mesenchyme that gives rise to corneal endothelium and trabecular meshwork by regulating Foxc1 expression in these cells (Figure 9).
Pitx2 is expressed predominantly in NC-derived corneal stromal cells that become collagen-synthesizing keratocytes. In Tgfbr2-mutant mice, however, corneal stromal cells do not express Pitx2 and consequently fail to develop into collagen-synthesizing keratocytes. Recently, mutations in the human TGFBR2 gene have been reported to cause Marfan's syndrome, a disorder also associated with defective extracellular-matrix synthesis . Thus, we conclude that corneal NC-derived cells must have TGFβ-dependent expression of Pitx2 and differentiation to become stromal keratocytes that produce the collagen matrix (Figure 9). In support of this hypothesis, Pitx2 expression is strongly induced in fibroblasts and eye tissue upon TGFβ signal activation.
In Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly patients who have a disease-linked mutation in the PITX2 gene, ocular anomalies appear to be accompanied by additional defects, including tooth abnormalities, redundant periumbilical skin, and heart defects (all together referred to as Rieger's syndrome) . Apart from its expression in NC-derived cells of the forming eye, Pitx2 is expressed in several other tissues during development, including the teeth, umbilicus, and the heart . In contrast to the mesenchymal expression pattern in the eye, in other organs the expression of Pitx2 is restricted to structures that are not NC-derived, but these structures, and especially the tooth anlagen, are surrounded by or are in close contact with NC-derived cells . Nevertheless, Tgfbr2-mutant embryos show no defects in the tooth anlagen or umbilicus at E18 (data not shown). Therefore, Pitx2-dependent anomalies in Tgfbr2-mutant mice appear to be restricted to the eyes, although because of embryonic lethality we could not determine whether there are additional Pitx2-dependent defects at a developmental stage later than E19.
We recently reported that inactivation of TGFβ signaling in NC stem cells also leads to cardiac and craniofacial defects and parathyroid and thymic gland anomalies reminiscent of human DiGeorge syndrome . Moreover, depending on the cellular context, TGFβ promotes non-neural cell fates in cultured NC cells [38, 39]. Hence, together with the findings from the present study, there is good evidence that TGFβ is a key modulator of non-neural differentiation of post-migratory NC cells during development of multiple tissues, including the eye.
We have shown an extensive contribution of the NC to the developing anterior eye segment and to the primary vitreous. Moreover, proper differentiation of NC-derived ocular cells is TGFβ-dependent (Figure 9). Specifically, we have shown that TGFβ is involved in growth restriction of the primary vitreous and consequently that Tgfbr2-mutant mice suffer from persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. In the anterior eye segment, anomalies in Tgfbr2-mutant mice are reminiscent of human Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly. Ocular expression of Pitx2 and Foxc1, which when mutated can cause Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly, is TGFβ-dependent, suggesting that both transcription factors are involved in mediating TGFβ signaling in ocular cells during development. Interestingly, a report of a family suffering from both Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous suggested a common linkage between genes for Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous . Thus, our findings may lead to further understanding of the pathophysiology of Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.
Generation of Tgfbr2-mutant mice
The generation of mice used in this study has been described before [9, 11, 16, 41]. Briefly, loxP-sites for Cre-mediated recombination were introduced into the mouse Tgfbr2 locus flanking exon 4, which encodes the transmembrane domain and is an important part of the functional intracellular domain of the Tgfbr2 protein. Mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the Wnt1 promoter and heterozygous for this Tgfbr2 'floxed' allele were mated with mice homozygous for the floxed allele. Inactivation of TGFβ signaling in NC-derived cells was achieved in embryos inheriting Wnt1-Cre and two Tgfbr2 floxed alleles . 100% of all mutant embryos had the phenotype described in this study, as assessed by the analysis of at least three embryos per stage and staining condition. In contrast, littermates lacking the Wnt1-Cre transgene or carrying a wild-type Tgfbr2 allele expressed Tgfbr2 normally and did not exhibit any overt phenotype, thus serving as control animals. Genotyping was performed as described . All animal experiments were performed on the C57BL/6 background, which has never been associated with genetic mutations causing retinal degeneration.
Fate mapping of ocular NC-derived cells in vivo
The Rosa26 reporter (Rosa26R) mouse strain expresses β-galactosidase following Cre-mediated recombination . To define the distinct contribution of the NC during ocular development, Rosa26R mice were crossed with Wnt1-Cre transgenic mice . At least three whole embryos per stage were stained with the β-galactosidase substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal; Sigma, Buchs, Switzerland) and subsequently fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde overnight at 4°C. Subsequently, embryos were embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 7 μm, and dewaxed for mounting with DFX (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). Some sections were counterstained with eosin (Fluka).
Embedding, sectioning and staining procedures were performed as described . Briefly, the eyes of at least three embryos per stage were stained with primary antibodies to TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Santa Cruz, USA), Tgfbr2 (Santa Cruz), pSmad2 (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Beverly, USA), Ki-67 (Lab Vision (UK) Ltd, Newmarket, UK), Brn3A , Pax6 (Chemicon International Inc., Temecula, USA), neurofilament (Chemi-con), Foxc1 (Santa Cruz), Pitx2 , and GFAP (Sigma). For visualization the ABC elite Kit (Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, USA) with Metal enhanced DAB (Pierce Biotechnology Inc., Rockford, USA) or AP substrate kit I (Vector) as substrates was used. In situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes to Dct was performed as described [9, 15]. TUNEL assays were performed following the manufacturer's guidelines (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). Standard protocols were used for tissue processing of semi-thin sections and subsequent toluidine blue staining . The Van Gieson's staining procedure was used to visualize collagen formation in the cornea.
Assessment of ocular growth
At least three Tgfbr2-mutant and control embryos per stage were embedded and sectioned. Mid-organ sagittal sections of both eyes were measured using an Eclipse E600 microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with a CCD camera (Kappa, Gleichen, Germany) and the PicEd Cora software version 8.08 (JOMESA, Munich, Germany).
Rat embryonic fibroblasts (rat2 cell line; American Type Culture Collection, Mannassas, USA) were cultured in DMEM:F12 medium (Gibco/Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma). Following a 60 min incubation in DMEM:F12 medium containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin at 37°C, cells were treated with TGFβ (5 ng/ml) for 90 min at 37°C as described . For short-term tissue-culture experiments, the eyes with periocular tissue were removed from nine embryos at E11 by microdissection. Left and right eyes were pooled separately and kept in DMEM:F12 medium containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin and antibiotics with and without TGFβ (5 ng/ml), respectively, for 6 h at 37°C. Western blot analysis of rat embryonic fibroblast extracts and mouse eye tissue extracts were carried out as described . Primary antibodies used were against Actin (Chemicon), pSmad2 (Cell Signaling), Foxc1 (Santa Cruz) and Pitx2 . Each experiment was performed at least three times.
Results are shown as mean ± standard error of the mean (S.E.M.). Graphs and statistical analyses used Prism 4.01 (GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, USA).
We thank B. Langsam and C. Imsand for their excellent technical assistance, C. Grimm, N. Mantei, S. Neuhauss, C. Remé, and A. Wenzel for valuable advice and discussions, and E. Turner, C. Mummery, A. McMahon, and P. Soriano for providing antibodies or mice. This work was supported by the Swiss National Foundation (SNF; to W.B. and L.S.), by the National Center of Competence in Research "Neural Plasticity and Repair", by the University of Zurich, and by the Swedish Science Council (to T.A.H.).
- Alward WL: Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome in the age of molecular genetics. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000, 130: 107-115. 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00525-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kume T, Deng KY, Winfrey V, Gould DB, Walter MA, Hogan BL: The forkhead/winged helix gene Mf1 is disrupted in the pleiotropic mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus. Cell. 1998, 93: 985-996. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81204-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu MF, Pressman C, Dyer R, Johnson RL, Martin JF: Function of Rieger syndrome gene in left-right asymmetry and craniofacial development. Nature. 1999, 401: 276-278. 10.1038/45797.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holmberg J, Liu CY, Hjalt TA: PITX2 gain-of-function in Rieger syndrome eye model. Am J Pathol. 2004, 165: 1633-1641.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tamimi Y, Lines M, Coca-Prados M, Walter MA: Identification of target genes regulated by FOXC1 using nickel agarose-based chromatin enrichment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004, 45: 3904-3913. 10.1167/iovs.04-0628.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hjalt TA, Amendt BA, Murray JC: PITX2 regulates procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD) gene expression: implications for the pathology of Rieger syndrome. J Cell Biol. 2001, 152: 545-552. 10.1083/jcb.152.3.545.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graw J: The genetic and molecular basis of congenital eye defects. Nat Rev Genet. 2003, 4: 876-888. 10.1038/nrg1202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wehrle-Haller B, Weston JA: Receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent neural crest migration in response to differentially localized growth factors. BioEssays. 1997, 19: 337-345. 10.1002/bies.950190411.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hari L, Brault V, Kleber M, Lee HY, Ille F, Leimeroth R, Paratore C, Suter U, Kemler R, Sommer L: Lineage-specific requirements of β-catenin in neural crest development. J Cell Biol. 2002, 159: 867-880. 10.1083/jcb.200209039.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cvekl A, Tamm ER: Anterior eye development and ocular mesenchyme: new insights from mouse models and human diseases. BioEssays. 2004, 26: 374-386. 10.1002/bies.20009.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wurdak H, Ittner LM, Lang KS, Leveen P, Suter U, Fischer JA, Karlsson S, Born W, Sommer L: Inactivation of TGFβ signaling in neural crest stem cells leads to multiple defects reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome. Genes Dev. 2005, 19: 530-535. 10.1101/gad.317405.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sanford LP, Ormsby I, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Sariola H, Friedman R, Boivin GP, Cardell EL, Doetschman T: TGFβ2 knockout mice have multiple developmental defects that are non-overlapping with other TGFβ knockout phenotypes. Development. 1997, 124: 2659-2670.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flugel-Koch C, Ohlmann A, Piatigorsky J, Tamm ER: Disruption of anterior segment development by TGF-β1 overexpression in the eyes of transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 2002, 225: 111-125. 10.1002/dvdy.10144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chai Y, Jiang X, Ito Y, Bringas P, Han J, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM: Fate of the mammalian cranial neural crest during tooth and mandibular morphogenesis. Development. 2000, 127: 1671-1679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee HY, Kleber M, Hari L, Brault V, Suter U, Taketo MM, Kemler R, Sommer L: Instructive role of Wnt/β-catenin in sensory fate specification in neural crest stem cells. Science. 2004, 303: 1020-1023. 10.1126/science.1091611.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leveen P, Larsson J, Ehinger M, Cilio CM, Sundler M, Sjostrand LJ, Holmdahl R, Karlsson S: Induced disruption of the transforming growth factor β type II receptor gene in mice causes a lethal inflammatory disorder that is transplantable. Blood. 2002, 100: 560-568. 10.1182/blood.V100.2.560.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito M, Yoshioka M: Regression of the hyaloid vessels and pupillary membrane of the mouse. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1999, 200: 403-411. 10.1007/s004290050289.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amaya L, Taylor D, Russell-Eggitt I, Nischal KK, Lengyel D: The morphology and natural history of childhood cataracts. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003, 48: 125-144. 10.1016/S0039-6257(02)00462-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haddad R, Font RL, Reeser F: Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. A clinicopathologic study of 62 cases and review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol. 1978, 23: 123-134. 10.1016/0039-6257(78)90091-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldberg MF: Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV): an integrated interpretation of signs and symptoms associated with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). LIV Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997, 124: 587-626.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamamoto Y, Jeffery WR: Central role for the lens in cave fish eye degeneration. Science. 2000, 289: 631-633. 10.1126/science.289.5479.631.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Melo J, Du G, Fonseca M, Gillespie LA, Turk WJ, Rubenstein JL, Eisenstat DD: Dlx1 and Dlx2 function is necessary for terminal differentiation and survival of late-born retinal ganglion cells in the developing mouse retina. Development. 2005, 132: 311-322. 10.1242/dev.01560.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hjalt TA, Semina EV, Amendt BA, Murray JC: The Pitx2 protein in mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2000, 218: 195-200. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200005)218:1<195::AID-DVDY17>3.0.CO;2-C.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Genis-Galvez JM: Role of the lens in the morphogenesis of the iris and cornea. Nature. 1966, 210: 209-210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Semina EV, Brownell I, Mintz-Hittner HA, Murray JC, Jamrich M: Mutations in the human forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 associated with anterior segment ocular dysgenesis and cataracts. Hum Mol Genet. 2001, 10: 231-236. 10.1093/hmg/10.3.231.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jamieson RV, Perveen R, Kerr B, Carette M, Yardley J, Heon E, Wirth MG, van Heyningen V, Donnai D, Munier F, Black GC: Domain disruption and mutation of the bZIP transcription factor, MAF, associated with cataract, ocular anterior segment dysgenesis and coloboma. Hum Mol Genet. 2002, 11: 33-42. 10.1093/hmg/11.1.33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johnston MC, Noden DM, Hazelton RD, Coulombre JL, Coulombre AJ: Origins of avian ocular and periocular tissues. Exp Eye Res. 1979, 29: 27-43. 10.1016/0014-4835(79)90164-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reese AB: Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Am J Ophthalmol. 1955, 40: 317-331.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McKeller RN, Fowler JL, Cunningham JJ, Warner N, Smeyne RJ, Zindy F, Skapek SX: The Arf tumor suppressor gene promotes hyaloid vascular regression during mouse eye development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99: 3848-3853. 10.1073/pnas.052484199.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reichel MB, Ali RR, D'Esposito F, Clarke AR, Luthert PJ, Bhattacharya SS, Hunt DM: High frequency of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and cataracts in p53-deficient mice. Cell Death Differ. 1998, 5: 156-162. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4400326.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang B, Smith RS, Peters M, Savinova OV, Hawes NL, Zabaleta A, Nusinowitz S, Martin JE, Davisson ML, Cepko CL, et al: Haploinsufficient Bmp4 ocular phenotypes include anterior segment dysgenesis with elevated intraocular pressure. BMC Genet. 2001, 2: 18-10.1186/1471-2156-2-18.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pendaries V, Verrecchia F, Michel S, Mauviel A: Retinoic acid receptors interfere with the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in a ligand-specific manner. Oncogene. 2003, 22: 8212-8220. 10.1038/sj.onc.1206913.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozeki H, Shirai S, Ikeda K, Ogura Y: Critical period for retinoic acid-induced developmental abnormalities of the vitreous in mouse fetuses. Exp Eye Res. 1999, 68: 223-228. 10.1006/exer.1998.0591.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collinson JM, Quinn JC, Buchanan MA, Kaufman MH, Wedden SE, West JD, Hill RE: Primary defects in the lens underlie complex anterior segment abnormalities of the Pax6 heterozygous eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98: 9688-9693. 10.1073/pnas.161144098.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prosser J, van Heyningen V: PAX6 mutations reviewed. Hum Mutat. 1998, 11: 93-108. 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1998)11:2<93::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-M.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou Y, Kato H, Asanoma K, Kondo H, Arima T, Kato K, Matsuda T, Wake N: Identification of FOXC1 as a TGF-β1 responsive gene and its involvement in negative regulation of cell growth. Genomics. 2002, 80: 465-472. 10.1016/S0888-7543(02)96860-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mizuguchi T, Collod-Beroud G, Akiyama T, Abifadel M, Harada N, Morisaki T, Allard D, Varret M, Claustres M, Morisaki H, et al: Heterozygous TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2004, 36: 855-860. 10.1038/ng1392.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hagedorn L, Suter U, Sommer L: P0 and PMP22 mark a multipotent neural crest-derived cell type that displays community effects in response to TGF-β family factors. Development. 1999, 126: 3781-3794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shah NM, Groves AK, Anderson DJ: Alternative neural crest cell fates are instructively promoted by TGFβ superfamily members. Cell. 1996, 85: 331-343. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81112-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Storimans CW, Van Schooneveld MJ: Rieger's eye anomaly and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Ophthalmic Paediatr Genet. 1989, 10: 257-262.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soriano P: Generalized lacZ expression with the ROSA26 Cre reporter strain. Nat Genet. 1999, 21: 70-71. 10.1038/5007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fedtsova NG, Turner EE: Brn-3.0 expression identifies early post-mitotic CNS neurons and sensory neural precursors. Mech Dev. 1995, 53: 291-304. 10.1016/0925-4773(95)00435-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wenzel A, Grimm C, Marti A, Kueng-Hitz N, Hafezi F, Niemeyer G, Reme CE: c-fos controls the "private pathway" of light-induced apoptosis of retinal photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2000, 20: 81-88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ittner LM, Koller D, Muff R, Fischer JA, Born W: The N-terminal extracellular domain 23–60 of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor in chimeras with the parathyroid hormone receptor mediates association with receptor activity-modifying protein 1. Biochemistry. 2005, 44: 5749-5754. 10.1021/bi048111o.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.